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Gerald R. McDermott explains the crtical confessional and cultural elements of these faiths in order that Christians can successfully interact with them while understanding our own Christian faith better in relation to them. Moreover, McDermott provides us with crucial historical points for each faith as well as identifying key personalities that have shaped the particular religions. McDermott explains what you need to understand about major world religions in order to engage people of other faiths while better understanding your own Christian faith and practice.

Each chapter includes explanations of traditions and rituals. McDermott discusses major figures within each religion. What would you like to know about this product? Please enter your name, your email and your question regarding the product in the fields below, and we'll answer you in the next hours. You can unsubscribe at any time.

Enter email address. Welcome to Christianbook. Sign in or create an account. Search by title, catalog stock , author, isbn, etc. Closeout Sale. World Religions: An Indispensable Introduction. By: Gerald McDermott. Domestic Unit. The nuclear family of husband, wife, and children is the most widespread domestic unit, though elders and unmarried siblings may be added to it in various societies and at various times.

This domestic unit is as common among remote peoples as among urbanites, and is also unrelated to the presence or absence of clans in a society. An exception is the traditional, rural matrilineal Minangkabau, for whom the domestic unit still comprises coresident females around a grandmother or mothers with married and unmarried daughters and sons in a large traditional house. Husbands come only as visitors to their wife's hearth and bedchamber in the house.

Some societies, such as the Karo of Sumatra or some Dayak of Kalimantan, live in large or long houses with multiple hearths and bedchambers that belong to related or even unrelated nuclear family units. Inheritance patterns are diverse even within single societies. Muslim inheritance favors males over females as do the customs of many traditional societies an exception being matrilineal ones where rights over land, for example, are passed down between females. Inheritance disputes, similar to divorces, may be handled in Muslim courts, civil courts, or customary village ways.

Custom generally favors males, but actual practice often gives females inheritances. In many societies, there is a distinction between property that is inherited or acquired; the former is passed on in clan or family lines, the latter goes to the children or the spouse of the deceased. Such a division may also be recognized at divorce. In many areas land is communal property of a kin or local group, while household goods, personal items, or productive equipment are familial or individual inheritable property.

In some places economic trees, such as rubber, may be personally owned, while rice land is communally held. With changing economic conditions, newer ideas about property, and increasing demand for money, the rules and practices regarding inheritance are changing, which can produce conflicts that a poorly organized legal system and weakened customary leaders cannot easily manage.

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Kin Groups. Many of Indonesia's ethnic groups have strong kinship groupings based upon patrilineal, matrilineal, or bilateral descent. Patrilineal descent is most common, though matriliny is found in a few societies, such as the Minangkabau of West Sumatra and southern Tetun of West Timor. Some societies in Kalimantan and Sulawesi, as well as the Javanese, have bilateral kinship systems.

Kinship is a primordial loyalty throughout Indonesia. Fulfilling obligations to kin can be onerous, but provides vital support in various aspects of life. Government or other organizations do not provide social security, unemployment insurance, old age care, or legal aid. Family, extended kinship, and clan do provide such help, as do patron-client relationships and alliances between peers.

Correlated with these important roles of family and kin are practices of familial and ethnic patrimonialism, nepotism, patronage, and paternalism in private sectors and government service. Child Rearing and Education. In the government education system, generally, quantity has prevailed over quality. Facilities remain poorly equipped and salaries remain so low that many teachers must take additional jobs to support their families.

Higher Education. The colonial government greatly limited education in Dutch and the vernaculars, and people were primarily trained for civil service and industrial and health professions. At the time of independence in , the republic had few schools or university faculties. Mass education became a major government priority for the next five decades. Today many Indonesians have earned advanced degrees abroad and most have returned to serve their country.

In this effort the government has received considerable support from the World Bank, United Nation agencies, foreign governments, and private foundations. Increasingly, better-educated people serve at all levels in national and regional governments, and the private sector has benefitted greatly from these educational efforts. Private Muslim and Christian elementary and secondary schools, universities and institutes, which are found in major cities and the countryside, combine secular subjects and religious education.

Higher education has suffered from a lecture-based system, poor laboratories, a shortage of adequate textbooks in Indonesian, and a poor level of English-language proficiency, which keeps many students from using such foreign textbooks as are available. Research in universities is limited and mainly serves government projects or private enterprise and allows researchers to supplement their salaries.

From the late s through the ls, private schools and universities increased in number and quality and served diverse students including Chinese Indonesians who were not accepted at government universities. Many of these institutions' courses are taught in afternoons and evenings by faculty members from government universities who are well paid for their efforts.

The colonial government limited education to an amount needed to fill positions in the civil service and society of the time. Indonesian mass education, with a different philosophy, has had the effect of producing more graduates than there are jobs available, even in strong economic times. Unrest has occurred among masses of job applicants who seek to remain in cities but do not find positions commensurate with their view of themselves as graduates.

Students have been political activists from the s to the present. The New Order regime made great efforts to expand educational opportunities while also influencing the curriculum, controlling student activities, and appointing pliant faculty members to administrative positions. New campuses of the University of Indonesia near Jakarta, and Hasanuddin University near Makassar, for example, were built far from their previous locations at the center of these cities, to curb mobilization and marching.

When riding a Jakarta bus, struggling in post-office crowds, or getting into a football match, one may think that Indonesians have only a push-and-shove etiquette. And in a pedicab or the market, bargaining always delays action. But public behavior contrasts sharply with private etiquette.

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In an Indonesian home, one joins in quiet speech and enjoys humorous banter and frequent laughs. People sit properly with feet on the floor and uncrossed legs while guests, men, and elders are given the best seating and deference. Strong emotions and rapid or abrupt movements of face, arms, or body are avoided before guests.

Drinks and snacks must be served, but not immediately, and when served, guests must wait to be invited to drink. Patience is rewarded, displays of greed are avoided, and one may be offered a sumptuous meal by a host who asks pardon for its inadequacy. Whether serving tea to guests, passing money after bargaining in the marketplace, or paying a clerk for stamps at the post office, only the right hand is used to give or receive, following Muslim custom.

The left hand is reserved for toilet functions. Guests are served with a slight bow, and elders are passed by juniors with a bow. Handshakes are appropriate between men, but with a soft touch and between Muslims with the hand then lightly touching the heart. Until one has a truly intimate relationship with another, negative feelings such as jealousy, envy, sadness, and anger should be hidden from that person.

Confrontations should be met with smiles and quiet demeanor, and direct eye contact should be avoided, especially with social superiors. Punctuality is not prized— Indonesians speak of "rubber time"—and can be considered impolite. Good guidebooks warn, however, that Indonesians may expect Westerners to be on time! In public, opposite sexes are rarely seen holding hands except perhaps in a Jakarta mall , while male or female friends of the same sex do hold hands. Neatness in grooming is prized, whether on a crowded hot bus or at a festival. Civil servants wear neat uniforms to work, as do schoolchildren and teachers.

The Javanese emphasize the distinction between refined halus and crude kasar behavior, and young children who have not yet learned refined behavior in speech, demeanor, attitude, and general behavior are considered "not yet Javanese. The Batak, for example, may be considered crude because they generally value directness in speech and demeanor and can be argumentative in interpersonal relationships.

And a Batak man's wife is deemed to be a wife to his male siblings though not in a sexual way , which a Javanese wife might not accept. Bugis do not respect persons who smile and withdraw in the face of challenges, as the Javanese tend to do; they respect those who defend their honor even violently, especially the honor of their women. Thus conflict between the Javanese and others over issues of etiquette and behavior is possible. A Javanese wife of a Batak man may not react kindly to his visiting brother expecting to be served and to have his laundry done without thanks; a young Javanese may smile and greet politely a young Bugis girl, which can draw the ire and perhaps knife of her brother or cousin; a Batak civil servant may dress down his Javanese subordinate publicly in which case both the Batak and the Javanese lose face in the eyes of the Javanese.

Batak who migrate to cities in Java organize evening lessons to instruct newcomers in proper behavior with the majority Javanese and Sundanese with whom they will live and work. Potential for interethnic conflict has increased over the past decades as more people from Java are transmigrated to outer islands, and more people from the outer islands move to Java.

Religious Beliefs. Indonesia has the largest Muslim population of any nation, and in the population was reported to be 87 percent Muslim. There is a well-educated and influential Christian minority about 9. The Balinese still follow a form of Hinduism. Mystical cults are well established among the Javanese elite and middle class, and members of many ethnic groups still follow traditional belief systems.

Officially the government recognizes religion agama to include Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism, while other belief systems are called just that, beliefs kepercayaan. Those who hold beliefs are subject to conversion; followers of religion are not. Belief in ancestral spirits, spirits of diverse sorts of places, and powerful relics are found among both peasants and educated people and among many followers of the world religions; witchcraft and sorcery also have their believers and practitioners.

The colonial regime had an uneasy relationship with Islam, as has the Indonesian government. Dissidents have wanted to make Indonesia a Muslim state, but they have not prevailed. The Javanese are predominantly Muslim, though many are Catholic or Protestant, and many Chinese in Java and elsewhere are Christian, mainly Protestant. The Javanese are noted for a less strict adherence to Islam and a greater orientation to Javanese religion, a mixture of Islam and previous Hindu and animist beliefs.

The Sundanese of West Java, by contrast, are ardently Muslim. The Dutch sought to avoid European-style conflict between Protestants and Catholics by assigning particular regions for conversion by each of them. Religious Practitioners. Islam in Indonesia is of the Sunni variety, with little hierarchical leadership. Two major Muslim organizations, Nahdatul Ulama NU and Muhammadiyah , both founded in Java, have played an important role in education, the nationalist struggle, and politics after independence.

The New Order regime allowed only one major Muslim political group, which had little power; but after the fall of President Suharto, many parties Muslim and others emerged, and these two organizations continued to play an important role in the elections. The leader of NU, Abdurrahman Wahid whose grandfather founded it , campaigned successfully and became the country's president; an opponent, Amien Rais, head of Muhammadiyah, became speaker of the DPR. During this time of transition, forces of tolerance are being challenged by those who have wanted Indonesia to be a Muslim state.

The outcome of that conflict is uncertain. Muslim-Christian relations have been tense since colonial times. The Dutch government did not proselytize, but it allowed Christian missions to convert freely among non-Muslims. When Christians and Muslims were segregated on different islands or in different regions, relations were amicable. Since the s, however, great movements of people—especially Muslims from Java, Sulawesi, and parts of Maluku into previously Christian areas in Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku, and West Papua—has led to changes in religious demography and imbalances in economic, ethnic, and political power.

The end of the New Order regime has led to an uncapping of tensions and great violence in places such as Ambon capital of the Maluku province , other Maluku islands, and Sulawesi. A loss of authority by commanders over Muslim and Christian troops in the outer islands is playing a part. Christians generally have kept to themselves and avoided national politics.

They lack mass organizations or leaders comparable to Muslim ones, but disproportionate numbers of Christians have held important civil, military, intellectual, and business positions a result of the Christian emphasis upon modern education ; Christian secondary schools and universities are prominent and have educated children of the elite including non-Christians ; and Village living is often dictated by established custom and mutual agreement by recognized leaders. Some Muslims are displeased by these facts, and Christians were historically tainted in their eyes through association with the Dutch and foreign missionaries and the fact that Chinese Indonesians are prominent Christians.

During the New Order, those not having a religion were suspected of being Communist, so there was a rush to conversion in many areas, including Java, which gained many new Christians. Followers of traditional ethnic beliefs were under pressure as well. In places such as interior Kalimantan and Sulawesi, some people and groups converted to one of the world religions, but others sought government recognition for a reorganized traditional religion through both regional and national politicking.

Among the Ngaju Dayak, for instance, the traditional belief system, Kaharingan, gained official acceptance in the Hindu-Buddhist category, though it is neither. People who follow traditional beliefs and practices are often looked down upon as primitive, irrational, and backward by urban civil and military leaders who are Muslim or Christian— but these groups formed new sorts of organizations, modeled on urban secular ones, to bolster support.

Such moves represent both religious and ethnic resistance to pressure from the outside, from neighboring Muslim or Christian groups, and from exploitative government and military officers or outside developers of timber and mining industries. On Java, mystical groups, such as Subud, also lobbied for official recognition and protections. Their position was stronger than that of remote peoples because they had followers in high places, including the president. Rituals and Holy Places.

Muslims and Christians follow the major holidays of their faiths, and in Makassar, for example, the same decorative lights are left up for celebrating both Idul Fitri and Christmas. National calendars list Muslim and Christian holidays as well as Hindu-Buddhist ones. In many places, people of one religion may acknowledge the holidays of another religion with visits or gifts. Mosques and churches have the same features found elsewhere in the world, but the temples of Bali are very special.

While centers for spiritual communication with Hindu deities, they also control the flow of water to Bali's complex irrigation system through their ritual calendar. Major Muslim annual rituals are Ramadan the month of fasting , Idul Fitri the end of fasting , and the hajj pilgrimage. Indonesia annually provides the greatest number of pilgrims to Mecca. Smaller pilgrimages in Indonesia may also be made to Workers harvest rice on a terraced paddy on the island of Bali. Rituals of traditional belief systems mark life-cycle events or involve propitiation for particular occasions and are led by shamans, spirit mediums, or prayer masters male or female.

Even in Muslim and Christian areas, some people may conduct rituals at birth or death that are of a traditional nature, honor and feed spirits of places or graves of ancestors, or use practitioners for sorcery or countermagic. The debate over what is or is not allowable custom by followers of religion is frequent in Indonesia.

Among the Sa'dan Toraja of Sulawesi, elaborate sacrifice of buffalos at funerals has become part of the international tourist circuit, and the conversion of local custom to tourist attractions can be seen in other parts of Indonesia, such as on Bali or Samosir Island in North Sumatra. Death and the Afterlife. It is widely believed that the deceased may influence the living in various ways, and funerals serve to ensure the proper passage of the spirit to the afterworld, though cemeteries are still considered potentially dangerous dwellings for ghosts.

In Java the dead may be honored by modest family ceremonies held on Thursday evening. Among Muslims, burial must occur within twenty-four hours and be attended by Muslim officiants; Christian burial is also led by a local church leader. The two have separate cemeteries. In Java and other areas there may be secondary rites to assure the well-being of the soul and to protect the living. Funerals, like marriages, call for a rallying of kin, neighbors, and friends, and among many ethnic groups social status may be expressed through the elaborateness or simplicity of funerals.

In clan-based societies, funerals are occasions for the exchange of gifts between wife-giving and wife-taking groups. In such societies representatives of the wife-giving group are usually responsible for conducting the funeral and for leading the coffin to the grave. Funeral customs vary. Burial is most common, except for Hindu Bali where cremation is the norm. The Sa'dan Toraja are noted for making large wooden effigies of the deceased, which are placed in niches in sheer stone cliffs to guard the tombs.

In the past, the Batak made stone sarcophagi for the prominent dead. This practice stopped with Christianization, but in recent decades, prosperous urban Batak have built large stone sarcophagi in their home villages to honor the dead and reestablish a connection otherwise severed by migration. Modern public health care was begun by the Dutch to safeguard plantation workers. It expanded to hospitals and midwifery centers in towns and some rural health facilities.

During the New Order public health and family planning became a priority for rural areas and about seven thousand community health centers and 20, sub-health centers were built by In Jakarta medical faculties exist in a number of provincial universities. Training is often hampered by poor facilities, and medical research is limited as teaching physicians also maintain private practices to serve urban needs and supplement meager salaries. Physicians and government health facilities are heavily concentrated in large cities, and private hospitals are also located there, some founded by Christian missions or Muslim foundations.

Many village areas in Java, and especially those in the outer islands, have little primary care beyond inoculations, maternal and baby visits, and family planning, though these have had important impacts on health conditions. Traditional medicine is alive throughout the archipelago. Javanese curers called dukun deal with a variety of illnesses of physical, emotional, and spiritual origin through combinations of herbal and magical means.

In north Sumatra, some ethnic curers specialize; for example, Karo bonesetters have many clinics. Herbal medicines and tonics called jamu are both home blended and mass produced. Commercial brands of tonics and other medicines are sold throughout the archipelago, and tonic sellers' vehicles can be seen in remote places.

Various forms of spiritual healing are done by shamans, mediums, and other curers in urban and rural areas. Many people believe that ritual or social missteps may lead to misfortune, which includes illness. Traditional healers diagnose the source and deal with the problems, some using black arts. Bugis transvestite healers serve aristocratic and commoner households in dealing with misfortune, often becoming possessed in order to communicate with the source of misfortune. In Bali, doctors trained in modern medicine may also practice spirit-oriented healing.

Accusations of sorcery and attacks on alleged sorcerers are not uncommon in many areas and are most liable to arise in times of social, economic, and political unrest. The most important national celebration is Independence Day, 17 August, which is marked by parades and displays in Jakarta and provincial and district capitals. Provincial celebrations may have local cultural or historical flavor. Youth are often prominent.

Kartini Day, 21 April, honors Indonesia's first female emancipationist; schools and women's organizations hold activities that day. The military also has its celebrations. New Year's is celebrated 1 January when businesses close and local fairs with fireworks are held in some places. Western-style dances are held in hotels in cities. Public celebration by the Chinese of their New Year was not allowed for decades, but this rule was lifted in and dragons again danced in the streets.

Previously it was celebrated only in homes, though businesses did close and for two days the bustle of Jakarta traffic was stilled. Local celebrations recognize foundings of cities, historical events and personages, or heroes some national, others regional , while others mark special events, such as bull racing on Madura and palace processions in Yogyakarta or Surakarta.

On Bali a lunar calendar New Year's day is celebrated with fasting, prayer, silence, and inactivity. All people including tourists must remain indoors and without lights on so that harmful spirits will think Bali is empty and will leave. Support for the Arts.

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In the past in Java and Bali, royal courts or rich persons were major patrons of the arts. They continue their support, but other institutions joined them. The Dutch founded the Batavia Society for the Arts and Sciences in , which established the National Museum that continues to display artifacts of the national culture. The Dutch-founded National Archive seeks to preserve the literary heritage, despite poor funding and the hazards of tropical weather and insects.

Over the past several decades, regional cultural museums were built using national and provincial government funding and some foreign aid. Preservation of art and craft traditions and objects, such as house architecture, batik and tie-dye weaving, wood carving, silver and gold working, statuary, puppets, and basketry, are under threat from the international arts and crafts market, local demands for cash, and changing indigenous values.

A college for art teachers, founded in , was incorporated in into the Technological Institute of Bandung; an Academy of Fine Arts was established in Yogyakarta in ; and the Jakarta Institute of Art Education was begun in Academies have since been founded elsewhere; the arts are part of various universities and teacher training institutes; and private schools for music and dance have been founded.

Private galleries for painters and batik designers are legion in Yogyakarta and Jakarta. Academies and institutes maintain traditional arts as well as develop newer forms of theater, music, and dance. Indonesia's literary legacy includes centuries-old palm, bamboo, and other fiber manuscripts from several literate peoples, such as the Malay, Javanese, Balinese, Buginese, Rejang, and Batak.

The fourteenth century Nagarakrtagama is a lengthy poem praising King Hayam Wuruk and describing the life and social structure of his kingdom, Majapahit. The I La Galigo of the Bugis, which traces the adventures of their culture hero, Sawerigading, is one of the world's longest epic poems. In colonial times some literature was published in regional languages, the most being in Javanese, but this was stopped after Indonesian independence.

The earliest official publishing house for Indonesian literature is Balai Pustaka, founded in Batavia in National culture was expressed and, in some ways formed, through spoken Malay-Indonesian understood by many people and newspapers, pamphlets, poetry, novels, and short stories for those who could read. By the time of independence, literary production was not great, but it has grown considerably since the s.


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The literary tradition is now rich, but one should note that reading for pleasure or enlightenment is not yet part of the culture of average urban Indonesians and plays little if any part in the life of village people. Indonesia has made literacy and widespread elementary education a major effort of the nation, but in many rural parts of the country functional literacy is limited.

For students to own many books is not common; universities are still oriented toward lecture notes rather than student reading; and libraries are poorly stocked. In the conflict between left-and right-wing politics of the s and early s, organizations of authors were drawn into the fray.

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In the anticommunist purges of the late s, some writers who had participated in left-wing organizations were imprisoned. The most famous is Pramoedya Ananta Toer, a nationalist who had also been imprisoned by the Dutch from to He composed books as stories told to fellow prisoners in exile on the island of Buru from to He was released from Buru and settled in Jakarta, but remained under city arrest.

Four of his novels, the Buru Quartet , published between and in Indonesian, are rich documentaries of life in turn-of-the-century colonial Java. They were banned in Indonesia during the New Order.

He is the only Indonesian novelist to have received such acclaim overseas. Graphic Arts. Stone sculptures of the elaborate Hindu variety in Java or the ornate sarcophagi of Sumatra are archaeological remains of value, but only in Bali is elaborate stone carving still done apart from that which may decorate some upscale Jakarta homes or public buildings. Wood carving is more common. The cottage carving industry of Bali finds a wide domestic and international market for its statues of people, deities, and animals, many of which are finely artistic, some hackneyed.

Perhaps the most common carving is in the urban furniture industry, mainly in Java, where ornately carved sofas and chairs are very popular. Traditional puppet or animal carvings of the mountain Batak of Sumatra or the upriver Dayak of Kalimantan are now mainly for tourists, though they once showed rich artistry now largely seen in museums.

The Toraja homes are still elaborately carved, and small examples of these carvings are sold to tourists. Toraja carve decorations on large bamboo tubes used for carrying palm wine or rice, and people in eastern Indonesia decorate small bamboo tubes that carry lime used in betel chewing. Among contemporary urban artists, painting on canvas or making batik is much more common than making sculpture. Indonesian textiles are becoming more widely known overseas.

Batik is the Javanese word for "dot" or "stipple"; ikat, a Malay-Indonesian word for "to tie," is a type of cloth that is tie-dyed before weaving.


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  • Batik textiles were made in royal courts and cottages, but also became a major commercial industry in Java and Bali, an industry that has experienced economic vicissitudes over the decades. Batik cloth varies enormously in artistry, elaboration, quality, and cost. Formal occasions require that Javanese, Sundanese and Balinese women wear whole cloths wrapped ornately to form a skirt. Men nowadays do so only at their marriage or if they are in royal courts or are performers in gamelan, dance, or theater. Long-sleeved batik shirts are now accepted formal social wear for men of all ethnic backgrounds, though formal wear for men also includes civil service uniforms, shirts and ties, or Western suits.

    Performance Arts. Performance arts are diverse and include: Javanese and Balinese gong-chime orchestras gamelan and shadow plays wayang , Sundanese bamboo orchestras angklung , Muslim orchestral music at family events or Muslim holiday celebrations, trance dances reog from east Java, the dramatic barong dance or the monkey dances for tourists on Bali, Batak puppet dances, horse puppet dances of south Sumatra, Rotinese singers with lontar leaf mandolins, and the dances for ritual and life-cycle events performed by Indonesia's many outer island ethnic groups.

    All such arts use indigenously produced costumes and musical instruments, of which the Balinese barong costumes and the metalworking of the gamelan orchestra are the most complex. Best known in Indonesia is the Javanese and Balinese shadow puppet theater based on the Ramayana epic, with its brilliant puppeteers dalang who may manipulate over a hundred puppets in all-night oral performances accompanied by a gamelan orchestra.

    Bali is best known for the diversity of its performance arts. Despite the fact that Bali draws visitors from around the world, and its troupes perform overseas, most Balinese performers are villagers for whom art complements farming. Contemporary and partly Western-influenced theater, dance, and music are most lively in Jakarta and Yogyakarta, but less common elsewhere. Jakarta's Taman Ismail Marzuki, a national center for the arts, has four theaters, a dance studio, an exhibition hall, small studios, and residences for administrators.

    Contemporary theater and sometimes traditional theater as well has a history of political activism, carrying messages about political figures and events that might not circulate in public. During the New Order, poets and playwrights had works banned, among them W. Rendra whose plays were not allowed in Jakarta. There is a long Javanese tradition of the poet as a "voice on the wind," a critic of authority. The development of science and technology has formed part of Indonesia's five-year plans and is directed toward both basic science and applied technology, with emphasis on the latter.

    Health, agriculture and animal husbandry, defense, physical sciences, and applied technology have had priority. The Indonesian Institute of Sciences has its headquarters and main library in Jakarta.

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    Its task is to oversee and encourage research in diverse fields, to coordinate between institutions, and to advise on national science and technology policy. It also approves research by foreign scholars. Indonesia's major scientific research training centers are the Technological Institute, in Bandung, and the Agricultural Institute, in Bogor, founded in the colonial period, which draw top secondary school graduates.

    Among social sciences, economics has received the greatest attention since the s when the Ford Foundation launched a major program to train economists abroad.

    These so-called technocrats rose to great importance during the early decades of the New Order and molded economic policy throughout the country's growth period, from the s through the s. Social sciences are included in the national mandate largely as they contribute to supporting development activities. Fields such as political science and sociology received far less attention during the New Order, owing to their potential for, and actual involvement in, social and political criticism.

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    Furnivall, J. Geertz, Hildred. The Javanese Family: A study of kinship and socialization , McVey, ed. Geertz, Hildred, and Clifford Geertz. Kinship in Bali , Hefner, Robert W. Islam in an Era of Nation-States , Hoskins, Janet. Josselin de Jong, P. Kahin, George Mc T. Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia , Kartodirdjo, Sartono. Modern Indonesia Tradition and Transformation , Kayam, Umar. The Soul of Indonesia: A cultural journey , Kipp, Rita Smith, and Susan Rodgers, eds. Indonesian Religions in Transition , Introduction to the Peoples and Cultures of Indonesia and Malaysia , Kwik, Greta.

    Lev, Daniel, S. Kahin , Levinson, David, and Melvin Ember, eds. American Immigrant Cultures: Builders of a Nation , Liddle, R. Leadership and Culture in Indonesian Politics , Loveard, Keith. Suharto: Indonesia's Last Sultan , Miksic, John. Borobudur: Golden Tales of the Buddhas , Peacock, James L. The Muhammadijah Movement in Indonesian Islam , Ricklefs, M. A History of Modern Indonesia since c. Russell, Susan D. Schwarz, Adam. A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the s , Siegel, James T.

    Suryadinata, Leo, ed. Ethnic Chinese as Southeast Asians , Taylor, Paul Michael, ed. Fragile Traditions: Indonesian Art in Jeopardy , Toer, Pramoedya Ananta. Walean, Sam A. Indonesia Year Book, — , Waterson, Roxana. Watson, C. Wiener, Margaret J. Williams, Walter L. Wolters, O. Woodward, Mark R. Toggle navigation. Culture Name Indonesian. A row of tongkona houses in the Toraja village of Palawa.

    History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space Javanese princes long used monuments and architecture to magnify their glory, provide a physical focus for their earthly kingdoms, and link themselves to the supernatural. Food and Economy Food in Daily Life. Women carrying firewood in Flores. Social Stratification Classes and Castes. Political Life Government. Social Welfare and Change Programs The responsibility for most formal public health and social welfare programs rests primarily with government and only secondarily with private and religious organizations.

    Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Organizations Despite government dominance in many areas of social action, nongovernmental organizations NGOs have a rich history, though they often have had limited funds, have operated under government restraint, and have been limited in much of their activity to urban areas.

    Marriage, Family, and Kinship Marriage. Socialization Child Rearing and Education. Etiquette When riding a Jakarta bus, struggling in post-office crowds, or getting into a football match, one may think that Indonesians have only a push-and-shove etiquette. Religion Religious Beliefs. Workers harvest rice on a terraced paddy on the island of Bali. Medicine and Health Care Modern public health care was begun by the Dutch to safeguard plantation workers.

    Secular Celebrations The most important national celebration is Independence Day, 17 August, which is marked by parades and displays in Jakarta and provincial and district capitals. The Arts and Humanities Support for the Arts. The State of the Physical and Social Sciences The development of science and technology has formed part of Indonesia's five-year plans and is directed toward both basic science and applied technology, with emphasis on the latter. Bibliography Abdullah, Taufik, and Sharon Siddique, eds. Abeyasekere, Susan. Jakarta: A History , Covarrubias, Miguel.

    Island of Bali , Dalton, Bill. Indonesia Handbook , 6th ed. Fontein, Jan. The Sculpture of Indonesia , Geertz, Clifford. The Religion of Java , Gillow, John. Traditional Indonesian Textiles , Grant, Bruce. Indonesia , 3rd ed. Keeler, Ward. Javanese Shadow Puppets , Javanese Culture , Villages in Indonesia , Lubis, Mochtar. The Indonesian Dilemma , McVey, Ruth T.

    Indonesia , Mulder, Niels. Individual and Society in Java , Pemberton, John. On the Subject of "Java," User Contributions: 1. I'm in High School and I'm doing a brochure about Indonesia and I found this site very helpful in that. I'm Indonesian and I found almost all of the information contained here very true. Thank you so much.

    I'm a high school student also.. So thanks for the information! Thankyou, this site is great! I am doing a project and was struggling to find a good informational site. I am so glad I found this. Great information everything I needed was here. Thanks again. The article is forthright, intelligent, comprehensive and well written.

    Govindankutty Pariyarath. Wonderful article. I congratulate the Indonesian people for harmonizing many diverse cultures; a remarkable achievement in this strife-torn world. Love Indonesia. Do we just address them as Pa or Ibu with the name or just pa and ibu only. In the different times of the day do we address them differently. We do we use the word permissi. I hv seen this word used quiet often in the tv programs.

    I love it Well structured and highly informative. I really appreciate the attention to detail and the complete citations you've provided. For example, rituals for children when they are born or the lifestyle a woman takes when she is pregnant. Thank you. I am Indonesian, particualrly from Flores Ende. I really appreciate the attention to detail and the complete information, that I need for my study.

    Dr. James A. Beverley

    It was very helpful for me. Thanks and God Bless You. I am Bangladeshi. But i like Indonesian culture,festivals and all. Thanks for giving a nice presentation about a country. I hope all will be attract and wish to visit there like. Being a Behavioural Anthropologist and the owner of a business that educates people on Indonesian cultures I have to say I commend you wholeheartedly on this website. Although most of my studies and work have primarily been based in West Sumatra having traveled throughout Indonesia I must say you have brought more than one smile to my face due to the accuracy on this site.

    Indonesia is as intrinsically intriguing as it is diverse. Terima kasih banyak. WE are choosing a foster child is Indonesia a country in need of this kind of support? Thanks pattt. Thanks for great info about Indonesia Joan Tabian. I Just wants to known about the glass window in Indonesia, particularly in Larantuka Flores? Is there anything story about? Why mostly all styles of glass windows are the same form and style? Thanks for giving resourceful info about Indonesia. We also give resourceful info about Indonesian language on our website. Keep up the good work!

    As an Indonesian, it is such a delight seeing a wonderful article with a wonderful structure, true to the facts and objectively written. Thanks a lot, since I am actually also researching for a paper about Indonesian culture. This page to good information iam a high school student This site is good but I need most of my information on just the Minangkabau.

    Is there another place I can find it? This site is very good and accurate I like it very much. It can help do my assignments and school project. Reading your superb article, made me love Indonesia more and more : Good work! Dinni Dilliani. This website is great! It tells a lot about Indonesia, the people--especially the women, culture, religion, and personality traits of most Indonesian.

    I am proud to be an Indonesian-American. Swistien Kustantyana. I'm an Indonesian. It's a kind of complete map of Indonesia. Thank u for giving the only true information. I always appreciate the real stories. Btw, please visit other places beside Bali 's pictures , u must will have the better ones.. Hello, I am born of a dutch mother and Indonesian father.

    I am trying to learn more about my Indonesian heritage and am planning a one year sabbitcal to Indonesia to find my lost relatives. I want to thank you for providing us all such remarkable information. You have made my plans much easier knowing that I go to my heritage land with so much valuable information in hand. Hi, if you provide a section just about culture can be more useful. Im Indonesian, im proud of my country and thank you for your sharing about my country through this blog. Im in high school and i did a project on indonesia and the website helped alot Thank you so much:.

    Thank you so much this is an amazing website it has got alot of information. This is amazing. Thank you very much for sharing this information with us. We're gonna use this for our research paper :D. I agree. I'm IndoGirl's partner in this research. And I must say I learned so much from this web!!! Truly Asia!! Iwant to know the percentage of christians chritianity in Indonasia as well as the names of the churches avalable curruntly. Recently my husband passed away and in going through boxes I came across a box containing her personal belongings from her time in Indonesia. Among the things was what I believe to be , for lack of a better word, a coffin screw.

    Would you be able to give me more information on this? I believe it was on the wooden box that transported her body from Indonesia to the United States. I'd like to find out more about this very unique piece. Thank you very much. I loved this page. This website provided maximum information for my country, Indonesia.