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However I wanted to approach its construction without any preconceived ideas in order to have control ols over such problems as might occur. I established three goals: To 1. The mask must not inhibit the voice in any way. I would experiment with a variety of materials. He Fre gave me three principles to follow: ith 1. The larger the mouth opening is, the better it is for the voice. The thinner the construction material is, the lesser the impact on l Fil the voice will be.

PD It is also important to steer the voice towards the mouth opening so that the sound is not lost in any cavities. The mask was in contact with the face at the forehead, the temples, and at the tip of the nose between the nostrils. This mask had no effect on the sound of the voice, but it sat too close to the face and interfered with cheek and jaw muscles when the actor spoke and it was too close to the chin. I shifted the mask out from the face to give enough space for the facial muscles to move freely behind it.

The only way to retain the minimal distance between mouth ols and mouth hole, and move the mask outwards, was to tilt the mask for- To ward a little. This allowed me to keep the mask-face contact at the tip of nd the nose and give the chin more room. I ith knew that masks used in Japanese Noh theatre had this kind of eyehole. They were all FE smaller than normal face-size and were concave in form.

This directed PD the view of the wearer forwards and downwards. The distance between l Fil the eyes was no more than 5. The concave form and the closer PD than normal distance apart of the eyeholes restricted the angle of sight downwards and the focus to a single point at short range. I experienced this very tangibly when I tried them on.

Peter Hall

Neither should one tilt the head too far forward, nor close the eyes, for this induces drowsiness and tiredness and one becomes introvert. The design of the mask directs the head and the gaze to a position of balance, to a state of meditation, awareness and presence. The form of the Japanese Noh masks had the same effect as the masks I had made in accordance with a concept from an entirely different source — my goal to give the mask the best possible acoustic properties. The Noh masks ols too appear to induce a slight squint in the wearer — the two eyes being To directed in slightly different a direction — which occurs in kenosis and in nd the Kerameikos mask.

Written at the begin- PD ning of the 20 th century, it tells the story of an old woman who kills l Fil sickly baby girls, her own grandchild among them, on the island of Skia- PD thos in the middle of the 19 th century. The play was performed by a chorus of seven actresses and an actor-narrator. The premiere was in Athens in the summer of One day, during voice training rehearsals with the masks, a phenomenon occurred which led the work forward. She used her own reso- nance in the forehead and that immediately started a resonance in the space between her forehead and the mask.

Now it became clear why the tragic mask To covered the whole head. The mask was an extra resonance chamber for nd the voice. It had an acoustic function. Unfortunately I discovered this ra rite too late in the rehearsal period to exploit these acoustic possibilities in eW the performance. I decided to make a new mask. He said the mask could work as a Helmholtz ith resonator.

In its simplest form it works like a bottle; when one blows w or across the opening, starting a resonance, it produces sound. Therefore l Fil the sizes of nose and eyeholes were quite critical. The sizes I had al- PD ready adopted were adequate. The mask now extended back to the crown of the head and gave more room between the front of the face and the mask. I reworked the contact point at the tip of the nose to a kind of funnel on the inside of the mask, which would always lead the voice out of it.

This was the birth of the acoustic resonance mask. I examined thickness, hardness, porosity and other properties. I found that the construction Fre material should be hard and rigid, dense and strong; its surface should ith be hard and preferably glossy; it should not be porous as porous mate- w or rials absorb sound; thick materials are also sound absorbent and they dit also inhibit reverberation characteristics.

The mask must be of a certain FE resilience but it must not be so thin as to risk its durability; it must be PD stable and strong without being thick. Certain acrylic glues are very PD elastic and deaden resonance and same applies to some types of paint. Varnishing is important. Hair may be glued to a mask or represented by painting. The painted hair gives better sound quality. The results of my experiments were used in the next stage of my work, the whole head mask, the fully developed form of the acoustic resonance mask.

This is because the sound of the voice travels in a certain direction determined by the anatomy of the head. To Although over the whole frequency range the difference is only -5dB for nd the back of the head compared to the front. It was to be performed at the theatre in dit Epidaurus. In the ensemble none of the actors and actress- l Fil es knew how to work with an acoustic mask.

But I was happy enough to PD get the chance to see my masks used at Epidaurus. For all the actors but one it was impossible to activate the resonance chamber of the masks. The actor who played Danaos,Yannis Dalianis, had a clear, unconstrained voice with resonance and a decided directional delivery, an extrovert voice and he succeded in creating resonance in his mask. I listened to him in rehearsal from different locations in the theatre. When I was right at the top and farthest away his voice held its full force, intensity and clarity. It was as if he was just in front of me or whispering in my ear, though he was standing far away.

This paradox, seeing someone far away and hearing him as if he was just a few feet away felt rather like a miracle. What matters is that one should hear extremely well. The circumsonant are those in which the voice spreads all PD round and then is forced into the middle where it dissolves, the case-endings are not heard and it dies away there in sounds of indistinct meaning.

The resonant are those in which it comes into contact with some solid substance and recoils, thus producing an echo, and making the terminations of cases sound double. If, however, there is no resonance we experience sound as dead ols and dry, the room seems lifeless and listening is neither interesting nor To attractive. Regarding the effect on speech of the acoustic eW resonance mask, the interval between direct speech and its echo is so short that the echo boosts and gives force to the direct speech.

PD One experiences a different quality. The use of the mask, covering the whole head, can accom- plish this. Consonance generates a living and pleasant space but it also endows the voice with a clarity that is necessary for communication with an audience. The mask also helps to achieve this desired and essential clarity by making consonants more distinct. The sounds of human speech consist of consonants and vowels.

Vowels with lower frequencies require a larger space in which to resonate and do so in the lower parts of the body, such as the chest. The high frequencies in speech sounds play an important role in the communication of content and meaning and these high frequencies are important components in the structure of consonants. This is why the consonants are so important in the understanding of speech… how they strike the mask… how the consonants become strong, clean, vibrant, both in the head and in the mask. Consonance and speech comprehen- ols sion create highly effective and pleasing communication and a living, To vibrant space.

This kenosis mask is the eW face of the ritual cries, the Dionysian path to ecstasy. The mask induces in the actor a state of awareness, attentiveness, alertness and intensity. It is an acoustical mask. It is now dit clear why the tragic masks had such small eyeholes. This feature helped FE the actor to concentrate. A large gaping mouth hole was not required. PD A trained voice does not need a large opening for its sound to be de- l Fil livered, it is projected inwards into the body, to the pelvis, and so the PD mask does not need a large mouth opening.

The mask does not need to be much larger than the head — a large increase in the size of the resonator changes the frequencies of the resonance. The appearance, size and form were deter- mined for very particular reasons. In the following pages I summarise our method and the experiences of the actors in our performances and of the seminar participants in their use of the mask — how they react to working with it and how the mask becomes as an instrument for the actor.

It creates the poetic reality of tragedy on stage at a corporeal and mental level. In our work with the actors, the creation of a mental state of inner ac- ceptance of the mask by the actor is of great importance. One of the ra basic principles in our work with the actors is the development of the rite greatest range of the voice of the actor.

Our starting point is that in eW tragedy three actors with the use of masks played all the roles, male and Fre female, young and elders, nobles and slaves. In accordance with this, ith each role uses another part of the totality of the vocal range, in analogy w with the role. By holding the tone continuously, while looking at the mask, the actor begins to make contact with it.

The gaze wanders over the surface of the mask and inspects its appearance. The mask, an image of kenosis, acts as a projec- tion screen. The actor notices its intensity, its gaze, its relaxation and projects new expressions upon it. The mask smiles, shouts, laughs, is sad, glad, mocking. Everything is there. A dialogue ensues.

The mask takes on life and is experienced as a responsive face. Uncon- ols sciously, the actor tries to imitate the face opposite. The mask shows To the way. The chin drops and relaxes, the eyes focus on the gaze of the nd mask. The mask and the face mirror each other. When such a dialogue ra rite arises, the actor is ready to put on the mask. If the actors, helped by the eW utterance of their continuous tones, keep in contact with each other, a common rhythm ensues and all the actors don their masks at about the Fre same time.

They feel alone behind their masks and devastated. The individual faces, the personal FE expressions, the looks, are gone as if they had never existed. No one PD judges them — in the beginning they feel as if they have disappeared. The chanting of tones leads to greater ob- jectivity; it regulates breathing by controlling the length of exhalation.

The tones give a palpable and physical understanding of what extrovert direction means to both voice and thought and breathing becomes calm- er and deeper. They begin to see and hear better, become aware of their breath- ing and regain contact with the group. In this way they become familiar with their masks, accept them and rely on them.

They feel the limitations. This arrangement works because the gaze is directed to a point, rather like a lens focuses rays of light. Close objects are seen to be larger than normal and distant objects appear to be further away. The actor becomes more aware of a series of physical actions such as the angle of the head, the drop of the shoulders, the position of the spine and the pelvis. One tries to strike the inner w or surface of the mask with the consonants and vibrate the vowels.

One dit can feel the resonance, the vibrations, in the mask. This dissociation FE of the intellect assists the actor to concentrate and concentration helps PD to create an extrovert direction. It is, however, important not only to maintain the volume but also the intensity and the extrovert direction.

One may be very noisy behind the mask and yet fail to project the voice so that it can be heard at a distance. One must resonate continuously, maintain the intensity and send the consonance out — be always extrovert. If one does not feel the consonance the voice has no direction. The mask is an instrument designed to control the resonance, the direction and the intensity of the voice. It is important that the process described above is carried out in a sit- ting position. Once this has been achieved, we can leave this position, and begin to move — stand up and walk.

However it must always be done with the help of a tone. This helps to maintain contact between body, direction and resonance. A more rhythmic movement pattern devel- ra rite ops which becomes distinct, concrete and extrovert. Because it is easier eW to be in rhythmic movement when wearing the mask, it is also, in some enigmatic way, easier to develop movement in accord with others. This Fre is not a case of individuals imitating each other, this union occurs at a ith deeper level. So a group dit rhythm is created — a common rhythm.

We are all dependent on each other and our sensitivity for the l Fil others grows. Rehearsal and performance of the chorus which is based PD on breathing in unison and the building of a common body is easier us- ing masks than without. The common resonance helps the actor to build a relationship with the space, to respond. In this way the mask helps the actor to escape from everyday life in which we generally are easy-going and do things with the minimum of effort. The mask excises the private face and brings a new state, a new dimension, it brings us to emptiness.

A whole new world is created in which no fear exists. But we must be careful not to relapse into slackness, believing that the mask is hiding us. The mask can deceive us. Laxity can be seen in the body, it is heard in the voice which becomes monotonous and introvert — it can be seen on the mask as it dies. We must always be present behind the mask, always awake, always alert, always in a state of kenosis. Akroasis, Time and Space The minimization of sight leads to the maximization of listening to ols the other actors, to a different awareness of their presence based not so To much on seeing but on hearing.

It leads the actor to the act of akroasis, nd the act of conscious and active listening. The individual Fre sense of Time of each of the actors is enlarged by the changes of vision ith imposed by the mask, which are the lack of the peripheral vision, the w or creation of a tunnel vision and the meeting with an internal vision. Creation of com- mon breath. Creation of the common body of the Chorus. The development of the common breath. The alteration of the breath of the actor and the creation of a differ- ent system of breathing that affects both the internal breathing space in ols the body and the time aspect of the breath.

Altering breathing creates To the prerequisites for the transformation of the voice and the produced nd sound. The individual sense of ith Time of each of the actors is enlarged by the changes of vision imposed w or by the mask which are the lack of peripheral vision, the creation of tun- dit nel vision and the adoption of an internal vision.

Exercises are employed to create a common sense of time at l Fil an individual and group level and to create a consensus about the Time PD that is going to be common to all during the perforrmance. Orientation and Perception of Space. The changes in vision imposed by the mask alter the perception and ori- entation in space. We help the actor to comprehend the acting space and create points in the space that function as compass points. Creation of the Mythical Topos We inspire the actor to have in mind that through his physical and men- tal presence the mask transforms the actual acting area into a Mythical Topos; the mental and symbolic space where the dramatic act of My- thos is unfolded.

Fre The minimization of sight leads to the maximization of listening to ith the other actors, to a different awareness of their presence based not so w or much on seeing but on hearing. The lack of vision is the prerequisite for dit the development of an active, and conscious listening, the act of akroa- FE sis. The actor has to learn to perceive in an active way complex qualities PD of sound, such as pitch, intensity, volume, tone, music, melody, timbre, l Fil sound color, etc. The goal is the creation of common breath, and particularly the creation of the common body of the chorus.

Improvisation of the actors in development of the musical scales. The development of the collective perception of the produced sound. Consonants Placement of the consonants and development of the produced sound in different parts of the head. The production and the perception of resonance. Vowels Placement and strengthening of the production of vowels in different ols resonance chambers of the body. To Sound production and its connection to different energy centers of nd the body. Acoustical Chaos The use of this exercise permits the actors to speak simultaneously what- Fre ever text each one chooses.

Each actor has his own speed, rhythm, pitch, ith and level of intensity creating a feeling of safety behind and inside the w or mask. This feeling helps the actor to accept the mask totally. Using dit this exercise the actors create tension and bodily intensity on a personal FE level and on a collective level. PDl Fil 5. Canon PD Division of the body of the chorus in two parts. Both subgroups per- form the same text in a loop with different starting points but with the same chronicity. It is a kind of organized chaos that grants the audience a new perception of speech and for the actor is the beginning of creative confrontation with Logos.

Unison The mark of the starting points in the text where the voices of all the members of the chorus occur together, simultaneously and at the same pitch in unison creating the solid body of the chorus unison. Heterochrony The performance of the same text by the chorus, where each member has his own chronicity, his own timing.

The development of the pres- ence of the individual as a part of the common group of the chorus. Rhythm Exercises in different rhythms that can become parts of the synthesis of ols elements. To nd 9. Metre ra rite Production of different metres of tragedy. First only with the body by eW literally walking the metres, Secondly, walking and clapping the metres. Third, standing and clapping the metres then with sound and fourth Fre with the use of speech. The metre as a phenomenon connected to dif- ith ferent energy centers of the body of the actor. The importance of the w or continuous change of the metre for the actors and the spectator.

The Cries PD The cries as elements for the change of the corporeal and mental state l Fil of mind of the actor and creation of scenic tension and means of the PD metamorphosis of the actor. The dialogue of the role with the chorus. When other kinds of theatre use the mask as a means to present differ- ences in character and human behaviour, the tragic mask focuses not on the differences but the commonality of the human species. And when it comes to the roles tragedy presents the deviation of the human behavior and as such it has to to be discussed.

Overtones Overtones are sharply resonating multi-dimensional sounds — a series of tones which are higher in pitch than the base tone. The harmonic series may often develop up to 40 overtones and although we may not be able to hear them all we are aware of a large number of them as subliminal ols sound, that is, sound not perceived by hearing but by other senses such To as touch. Together with the base tone they constitute a harmonic sound nd which is experienced as polyphonic singing.

The very existence of this PD sculptural composition presupposes a different kind of movement and a different kind of the development of the movement on stage. In the beginning we analyze the choreography exactly, the sequence of movements and then we practice so the actors can perform this se- quence, a development of basic forms, schemata: line, parallel lines, tri- angle and circle. Three different steps, bemata: Steps as preparation of movement, steps of transition, steps of corporeal oscillation.

Positions of the arms and the hands, Cheronomeiai Six different positions of the arms and the hands and the importance of the transition from one position of the arms and the hands to the other in relation to the mask as a means to creating dramatic meaning. Immobility The dramatic and dramaturgical meaning of immobility. Immobility as a basic component for the creation of a continuous and dynamic ols image. Immobility as the phase in between the completion of the funda- To mental formation of the chorus and its transition to the next formation.

As with our work ra rite with speech, Logos, there are several forms that can be applied when we eW work with movement. Fre 4. All movement patterns are different. FE PD 5. Kinetic Canon l Fil The chorus is divided in two sub-groups and each group performs PD the same movement pattern but starting at a different time.

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Kinetic Unison Simultaneous movement when every member of the chorus performs the same movement pattern at the same time. Kinetic Dialogue A dialogue created between the movement pattern of the actor playing a role and the movement pattern of the chorus performed simultaneously. All these forms may happen simultaneously with their corresponding forms of the Logos in accordance or in discordance with them Fourth unit Composition and Synthesis of all the elements.

Creation of the act of Theatre. The synthesis of all the elements presented above into a unity. Theater performance is a multi artwork. In nd respect to this the tragic mask is a focal point, an epicenter where all the ra rite Arts converge. In contemporary theater terms we can deconstruct all eW the art forms that constitute the theatre performance but not the Mask.

The Mask can not possibly be deconstructed and it exists as a symbol for Fre the synthesis of the Arts. It is only as such that it can reveal its hidden ith dynamics.

Behind the mask, the actor develops a double awareness. Working with the acoustical mask, the actors go through a comprehensive re-training that leads them into another way of working, into another area of work. The acoustical mask is the instrument that creates a new web of relations that involve the text, the actor, the chorus, the creation of the roles, and the relationship between the stage and the auditorium.

Techniques of working with the mask that have been cre- ated during the 20th century are mostly based upon the assumption that the mask is a device for the development and liberation of the expressive ols potential of the actor. In our work, it is the actor who has to accept and become the eW instrument of the mask. The actor behind the mask accepts the mask, adapts himself to the restrictions required by the mask, reveals himself Fre thereby, and achieves creative freedom.

The development of the expres- ith sive potential of the actor is an added bonus as the somatic impulses are w or given precedence to the cerebral ones during the creatice process. The mask and the voice were two sides of the same coin. It is thought, energy, voice and speech, it is logos, that keeps the mask alive. Without this the mask merely hides the face, it becomes detached and dies. The face is no longer private behind the mask, it becomes a mask.

The face and the mask change places. We get the feeling that our skin has been moved out to the mask so that our blood circulates around it. The mask becomes transparent like the human skin. The mask is alive. A fusion of mask and body occurs. A new reality comes into being. In this way the mask is an instrument with which we can together create a living organism which is something much greater than individual roles, individual achievements, individual actors. The ols mask is above all the instrument of the narration. It is a strict narrow To channel which leads all energy to the creation of this new organism — the nd narrative.

The mask stands in its service and it receives, in return, a ra rite reward of great importance — life. An empty shell is transformed into a eW living face. The Mask and the Text Mask and voice exist in mutual engagement, in reciprocal dependence, in symbiosis. The whole body speaks, listens, exists in a state of communica- tion. The pelvis, the spine, the whole body radiates, is in readi- ness, in tension, in control. The actor accepts the limitations imposed by the mask, welcomes the mask, adapts to it and achieves freedom.

In Fre that emptiness the archetype is given a face. FE PD These incarnations of Otherness were presented in the theatre by the l Fil male citizens of Athens — the hero, the barbarian and the woman. In the PD theatre men could participate in these representations — the theatre itself stood under the protection of the Other above all others, Dionysus.

In the theatre the Otherness found its place in the bodies of the actors and in doing so found place at the centre of social and religious life of Ath- ens. Even for a short time and only in the limited and liminal space of theatre the city literally incorporated the Other in its own body. In this way the mask of tragedy, of kenosis — emptiness and presence at the same time— is the face of the Other. The expressionless appear- ance of the mask allows the projection of different expressions upon it.

Kenosis creates a stream of ever changing expressions, the mask acting as a projection screen. Every movement of the body, every change in tone, voice, gesture and energy transforms the appearance of the mask. The poetic texts have the capacity of ema- rite nating constant visions, images in the imagination of the audience. The mask is in continuous dialogue with the text, in continu- PD ous tension, resisting the text. The mask becomes a projection screen for the audience to project the text upon.

The mask does not actually change, but because it is always without expression it is open to constant reinterpretation. The mask becomes a projection screen on which the text is projected for the audience.

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Exposed by the Mask: Form and Language in Drama - eBook - senoxiwipiqa.tk

It becomes the topos where the energy of the voice and the body meet, the topos upon which the gaze of the audience and the tragic text meet. This kind of text also includes descriptions of appearance, or change of mood and facial expression, of the characters in the play.

Descriptions of settings and scenery may also be included. We can therefore say that there are Fre two kinds of mask present during a performance. Those worn by the ith actors and those which belong to, and are brought forth by, the text. The FE mask responds, opposes, illuminates the text, exists in unbroken tension, PD in continuous dialogue. The text projects onto the masks so that we can picture what it describes. This works because the tragic mask was an image of kenosis with only a mere indication of sex, age or status and no expression any sort.

The only remarkable feature of the image is that the Erinys bears snakes in her arms and on her head.

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The mask was the place, topos, where the energies of voice and body converged, where the gaze and the text were projected. Types that belong FE to the genre of comedy and not tragedy.

60 Drama Mask Tattoos For Men

In it parallels are drawn between the appearance of animals and humans and between different races and conclusions are reached based on forms of the face, colour, expressions and bodily char- acteristics. Raised eye- brows pointed to pride, wavy hair to courage and curly hair to an en- ergetic disposition. Thus categories and stereotyping were introduced and when society became categorised theatre masks were adapted to suit the stereotypes. The audience could read on the mask the character of a role as soon as the actor made his entrance. The heroes were transformed into characters and social types.

The genre of New Comedy that was very popular during this era pro- vided the Western theatre with a cast-list of human types which survived ols through the centuries to our time. To The Hellenistic mask, in particular the mask of the new comedy, indi- nd cated sex, age, status, origin and character. These elements Fre together with the notion of kenosis create the notion of Ethos. They do not act to represent character but char- PD acter study is included for the sake of the action. That leads us to the fact that the actor seeks the actions and not the coherent personality that commits them.

It means that any character drawing is not created on stage by the mask at the begin- ning of the performance but in the mind of the audience and by the totality of the performance at the end of it. The mask does not give the audience any key to read the character but becomes a projection screen for the actions of the role. Thus, the mask is a part of an aesthetic system that creates Ethos. The human being was an organic part of the community without the Fre psychological autonomy that marks the modern man.

The notion of ith tragedy is born when the individual, being part of the community be- w or gins to search for the truth outside the community, outside the common dit faith. FE PD The central themes of tragedy are choice and action, not character. The main focus is in the action represented by the plot, mythos. Aristotle stated that tragedy could exist without characteri- sation, but not without mythos. Mythos is the soul of tragedy. This is because Greek individuals, of that time, were a part of a community - social beings who understood them- selves to be so.

Ethics were coupled to society, to the group to which they belonged, not to a personal psychol- ogy. That is the background to the lack of psychological development of the heroes and to the fact that the persons portrayed in the tragedies are not named unless they are kings, queens, princes, half gods or heroes. That possibility was not a part of the thinking of the dramatists of tragedy.

Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripi- des give us no interpretations of character based on physical appearance, no hint of a connection between facial expression and character. Characterisation exists to support the plot. The tragic heroes were nei- ther good nor evil. In the beginning, one, later two, and from the middle of 5th c. Each actor played To several roles, by changing masks. The mask was, of course, the vehicle nd that permitted them to play all the roles, even the female parts. A totality much bigger than the simple FE addition of its parts.

In this way the human and divine exist- ence is united in the presence of the same actor. These roles are interrelated within the frame of a greater cosmologi- cal cycle and present levels of the human and the divine that underlie the connection between them. One of the basic assumptions in our work with the actors is the development of the greatest possible range of their ols voice.

We have as a starting point the principle of the three actors who To with the masks play all the roles. In accordance to this principle, each nd role uses another part of the total vocal range, analogous to the role. Performances w or of tragedy in Ancient Greek theatres always had choruses. The tragic dit chorus had 15 members and performed as an indivisible whole, in vocal FE and physical union. PD As I already mentioned it is easier to develop a rhythmic movement l Fil pattern together with other people when all are wearing masks, because PD the mask prevents them simply from imitating each other.

The only alternative then left is to listen to the voice and breathing of the others and in this way develop little by little a common rhythm, a common breath, usually based upon the rhythm of breath of the text. Everybody then depends on each other and develops sensitivity for each other. This is how a tragic chorus is born. But there is another aspect connecting the idea of the mask to the idea of the chorus.

In the context of the play the chorus is a multi-voiced persona, a single organism and not simply an accumulation of individu- als The chorus experiences and represents moments of collective feeling merged sometimes in critical distance and other times in ecstatic com- munion. It is in dialogue with the roles of the play. The actors playing the roles merge from the chorus and dissolve back to it. The chorus has a structural place within the world of the play and is not detached from ols the time and place of the action.

Through its continuous presence on To stage the chorus creates the unity of Action, Space and Time.. The par- nd ticularity of the mask of the chorus is that all the members of the chorus ra rite have identical masks. This is unique in the World theatre. Quantum FE physics present the fact that electrons and all other species of elementary PD particles exhibit no individuality. The chorus presents the two unmistakable traits of the theory of Fractals; self similarity — where every part of the fractal resembles every other part and scaling — the fractal pattern is made up of smaller copies of the same pattern.

To exist is to participate and to be interdependent of each other. These ideas about the human being, common to the pre- Socratic philosophers have never been better represented on stage than with the presence of the tragic chorus. The mask always keeps alive the tension between the One and Other, the whole and the part. While other kinds of theatre use the mask as a means to present character differentiation and human behaviour, the mask of the tragic chorus focuses not on the ols differences but on the unifying aspects of the human species.

To nd ra Mask and mimesis rite eW Tragedy is according to Aristotle a representation, mimesis, of heroic Fre actions of a certain importance and magnitude. But mimesis is not just a ith representation. Mimesis originates in the mimetic actions of the priests w or in the cult of Dionysus. Thus on the textual level the poet creates a story dit which reveals, subliminally, the condition of mankind presented at its FE deepest level.

He by-passes the simplest levels of realism and searches in PD the borderlands of life. He discloses cosmic laws and truth. In this way, l Fil he presents not just a poetic private truth; he seeks to tell universal truths PD about life and the cosmos. Mimesis, then, does not mean a representa- tion of reality, but the creation of a new reality, a new living organism, in which the onlooker comes into contact with the laws that rule human life. In a performance, the text must depend on physicality in order to present this new reality to the audience. The entire construction of the mask leads the actor towards a metamorphosis.

On the level of the performance the text is dependent upon the presence of the body, upon the energy of the actor so it can be transformed and participate in this new reality. It is through the body that tragedy becomes understandable,painful ,indis- pensable and unbearable. If tragedy is a theatrical form based upon the suffering human body, then the voice and the speech constitute one of the basic elements of the presence of the body and the mask is a channel for the creation of this new organism, which is not simply a representa- tion but a new reality.

The mask enhances the voice, creates good con- ditions of understandingspeech, strengthens the corporeal dimension of the text and is an instrument for the creation of the chorus and the metamorphosis of the actor. A fu- To sion occurs between the body of the actor and the mask and a new reality nd comes into existence; an organic gestalt. Other editions. Enlarge cover. Error rating book. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem?

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As the artistic director of the Royal Shakespeare Company, the National Theatre and the Old Vic, he has directed the greatest actors of our time in numerous seminal interpretations of Shakespeare and the Classics. In his latest work, Sir Peter Hall ranges over the extraordinary history of world drama to find the common experiences that are able to create the theatrical form. This series of 4 lectures were delivered at Trinity College in Cambridge as part of the famed Clark lectures which began in the nineteenth century. The argument of the lectures is that theatre is only created when emotions are contained by a form.

That very form paradoxically gives freedom of expression. Thus the Greek mask enables the actor to express hysteria. The mask, whether it may be the actual physical mask on the face, or the form of the drama itself, makes expression possible. And Beckett and Pinter by the metaphors of their plays have brought poetry back to the theatre. Without form there can be no freedom. Peter Hall is currently in Denver, Colorado, in rehearsals for the world premiere production of Tantalus , a 15 hour, 10 play cycle based on Greek tragedy to open at the Denver Center Theatre in October Get A Copy.

Paperback , pages. Published September 1st by Theatre Communications Group. More Details Original Title. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Exposed by the Mask , please sign up. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing